## ICFP 2014: Day 3

Good Morning from the 3rd and final dayÂ of the 19th International Conference on Functional Programming, as ever Leo and I (Heidi) are here to bring you the highlights.

#### Keynote (Chair: Edwin Brady)

#### Depending on Types

#### Stephanie Weirich (University of Pennsylvania

Is GHC a dependently type PL ? Yes*

The story of dependently typed Haskell ! We are not claiming that every Agda program could be ported to Haskell

Example: Red-black trees (RBT) from Agda to haskell

All the code for today's talk is on github: https://github.com/sweirich/dth

Example of insertion into RBT from Okasaki, 1993.

How do we know that insert preserves RBT invariants ?

We are going to use types

Examples RBT in Agda from Licata. We can now turn this into GHC using GADT's and datatype promotion.

Haskell distinguishes types from terms, Agda does not.

In Haskell types are erased at runtime unlike adge.

Datatype Promotion: Recent extension to GHC, we can't promote things like GADT's though.

GADT's: introduced to GHC 10 years ago, the really challenge was integration with Hindley-Milner type inference

Silly Type Families - GADT's from 20 years ago

Our current insert to RBT needs to temporary suspect the invariances for RBT, but how can we express this in the haskell type scheme ?

Singleton Types: Standard trick for languages with type-term distinctions.

The difference between Agda and haskell: Totality

What's next for GHC ?

Datatype promotion only works once

Wishlist

- TDD: Type-driven development (as described by norman yesterday)

- Totality checking in GHC

- Extended type inference

- Programmable error messages

- IDE support - automatic case splitting, code completion and synthesis

GHC programmers can use dependent type*

Q: Why not use incr in the definition to unify the two constructors ?

A: You can, I was just simplifying for explanation

Q: Its seems like this increase cost, is this the case ?

A: Yes, but not too much

Q: Are dependent types infectious ?

A: Good questions, no we can add a SET interface to this RBT to abstract

Q: To what extend is Haskell the right place for these new features ?

A: Its a great testbed for industrial scale and we can take lessons back into dependently typed

Q: Can you do this without type families ?

A: Yes, I wanted show type families

Q: Why not just use Agda ?

A: Haskell has large user base, significant ecosystems, 2 decades of compiler dev

Q: What's the story for keeping our type inference predictable ?

Q: What level of students could use these ideas ?

A: I've used in advanced programming for seniors

#### Session 10: Homotopy Type Theory (Chair: Derek Dreyer)

*Homotopical Patch Theory*

#### Carlo Angiuli (Carnegie Mellon University); Ed Morehouse (Carnegie Mellon University); Daniel Licata (Wesleyan University); Robert Harper (Carnegie Mellon University)

Idea: define a patch theory within Homotopy Type Theory (HoTT)

Functorial semantics: define equational theories as functors out of some category. A group is a product-preserving functor G -> Set

Homotopy Type Theory: constructive, proof-relevant theory of equality inside dependent type theory. Equality proofs a = b are identifications of a with b

Can have identifications of identifications.

Higher Inductive Types introduce non-sets: arbitrary spaces.

Patch Theory defines repositories and changes in the abstract -- model repositories, changes, patch laws governing them.

Key idea: think of patches as identifications!

Bijections between sets X and Y yield identifications X = Y.

Example: repository is an integer; allow adding one. Everything works out nicely.

Next example: repository is a natural number; allow adding one. Problem: can't always subtract one (which would be the inverse of adding one)! -- solved using singleton types.

Closing thoughts: computation vs. homotopy. There is a tension between equating terms by identifications and distinguishing them by computations. Analogy: function extensionality already equates bubble sort and quicksort -- they are the same function but different programs. Computation is finer-grained than equality.

C: Very understandable talk! But I still need to see a talk / paper where Homotopy Type Theory guides me to something new.

A: The functorial part comes for free within HoTT. Also we're forced to do everything functorially.

Q: Patch computation -- does your theory say anything about that?

A: Didn't work out nicely.

Q: Can you give me some intuition about the singleton type used in the naturals example?

A: This is a hack. We want a directed type that does not have symmetry.

Q: What about higher layers?

A: Don't need to go further than the second layer when dealing with Sets.

*Pattern Matching without K*

#### Jesper Cockx (KU Leuven); Dominique Devriese (KU Leuven); Frank Piessens (KU Leuven)

Pattern matching without K

Dependent pattern matching is very powerful, but HoTT is incompatible with dependent pattern matching. The reason: it depends on the K axiom (uniqueness of identity proofs), which HoTT does not allow. But not all forms of dependent pattern matching depend on the K axiom!

Dependent pattern matching. Have a dependent family of types -- example of pattern matching given with dependent pattern matching and without.

K is incompatible with univalence.

How to avoid K: don't allow deleting reflexive equations, and when applying injectivity on an equation c s = c t of type D u, the indices u should be self-unifiable.

Proof-relevant unification: eliminating dependent pattern matching. 1. basic case analysis -- translate each case split to an eliminator; 2. specialization by unification -- solve the equations on the indices; 3. structural recursion -- fill in the recursive calls.

Instead of McBride's heterogeneous equality, use homogeneous telescopic equality.

Possible extensions: detecting types that satisfy K (i.e. sets -- allow deletion of "obvious" equations like 2 = 2); implementing the translation to eliminators (this is being worked on or is done but not yet released); extending pattern matching to higher inductive types.

Conclusion: by restricting the unification algorithm, we can make sure that K is never used -- no longer have to worry when using pattern matching for HoTT!

Q: What was your experience contributing to Agda?

A: Not a huge change -- not too hard.

Q: Is there a different way of fixing the "true = false" proof?

A: K infects the entire theory.

Q: You said the criterion is conservative. Have you tried recompiling Agda libraries? What did you observe?

A: 36 errors in the standard library, 16 of which are easily fixable, 20 are unfixable or it is unknown how to fix them.

Q: Is K infectious?

A: Yes -- when activating the "without K" option, you cannot use a library that defines something equivalent to K.

#### Session 11: Abstract Interpretation (Chair: Patricia Johann)

*Refinement Types For Haskell*

#### Niki Vazou (UC San Diego); Eric L. Seidel (UC San Diego); Ranjit Jhala (UC San Diego); Dimitrios Vytiniotis (Microsoft Research); Simon Peyton-Jones (Microsoft Research)

Refinement Types: types with a predicate from a logical sub-language

can be used to give functions preconditions

Example: division by zero.

ML, F#, F* have had refinement type implementations but they're CBV! How can this be translated to Haskell?

CBV-style typing is unsound under call-by-name evaluation.

Encode subtyping as logical verification condition (VC)

Under call-by-name, binders may not be values! How to encode "x has a value" in CBN? Introduce labels to types (giving stratified types): label values that provably reduce to a value.

How to enforce stratification? -- Termination analysis! Can use refinement types for this.

Can check non-terminating code. (collatz example)

How well does it work in practice? LiquidHaskell is an implementation of a refinement type checker for Haskell.

Evaluation: most Haskell functions can be proved to be terminating automatically.

Q: What's a stratified algebraic data type?

A: It's an ADT with a label.

Q: How do you prove termination of structurally recursive functions?

A: Map to numbers (e.g. list to length)

Q: Refinement types for call-by-push-value?

A: There is some work on refinement types which does not depend on the evaluation strategy.

Q: In the vector algorithm algorithm library, every function had to be annotated.

A: Here the first argument usually increases rather than decreasing so had to write a custom metric but this was simple.

Q: How does this interact with other features of Haskell like GADTs?

A: LiquidHaskell works on Core so there should be no problem.

Q: Did you find any bugs in your termination analysis of different libraries?

A: Yes a tiny bug in Text, has been fixed now.

*A Theory of Gradual Effect Systems*

#### Felipe BaÃ±ados Schwerter (University of Chile); Ronald Garcia (University of British Columbia); Ã‰ric Tanter (University of Chile)

Programs produce results and side-effects. Can use type and effect systems to control this. Here, functions have an effect annotation -- a set of effects that the function may cause. Expressions are also annotated with their effects.

Get into trouble when passing an effectful function to another function: as a safe approximation, the higher-order function must always assume that the function passed in may have any possible effect.

Introduce "unknown" effect (upside-down question mark). Combine this with a generic type-and-effect system which comes with "adjust" and "check" funtions.

Use abstract interpretation to lift adjust and check from static to gradual typing. Idea: extend the domains of sets to include "unknown" side-effects.

Define concretization function from consistent privileges to the feasible set of effect sets.

Introduce internal language: with "has" and "restrict" constructs.

Future work: implementation (currently targeting Scala); Blame

Q: Can you always derive the concretization function?

A: It is provided by us.

Q: If you're doing dynamic checking and dealing with arrays, but you can't raise errors -- what are you supposed to do?

A: You don't want to produce a side effect when you're not allowed to do so.

Q: Does your system allow parameterization on effect sets?

A: No, not in this paper. The implementation requires it though so this is future work.

#### Session 12: Dependent Types (Chair: Ulf Norell)

*How to Keep Your Neighbours in Order*

#### Conor McBride (University of Strathclyde)

Conclusion first: Push types in to type less code!

A very engaging and amusing talk. Conor demonstrates (with lots of Agda code!) how to use types to build correct binary heaps and 2-3 trees.

Take-aways: Write types which push requirements in. Write pograms which generate evidence.

Q: What does "push requirements in" mean?

A: Start from the requirements. The information that's driving the maintenance of the requirements is passed in. (?)

*A Relational Framework for Higher-Order Shape Analysis*

#### Gowtham Kaki (Purdue); Suresh Jagannathan (Purdue)

Shape analysis in functional languages: ADTs track shapes of data. Types can document shape invariants of functions -- but we want to be able to refined these constraints!

Can we refine ML types to express and automatically verify rich relationships? Need a common language to express fine-grained shapes. Build up from relations and relational algebra. Example: in-order and forward-order.

Relational operators are union and cross

Predicates are equality and inclusion

But: relational types for polymorphic and higher-order functions must be general enough to relate different shapes at different call sites. Examples: id, treefoldl : a tree -> b -> (b -> a -> b) -> b

Consider id : a-> a -- shape of argument is the shape of its result.

Functions can be parameterized over relations. Also get parametric relations: relations can be parameterized over relations.

We consider the "effectively propositional fragment" of many-sorted first-order logic. Key observation for translation: a fully instantiated parametric relation can be defined in terms of its component non-parametric relations.

Implementation: CATALYST, tycon.github.io/catalyst/

Q: Does your type system allow the user to introduce new relations?

A: Yes.

Q: Can you compile any kind of parametric relation or are there restrictions?

A: You can also write relations on infinite data structures.

#### Session 13: Domain Specific Languages II (Chair: Yaron Minsky)

*There is no Fork: an Abstraction for Efficient, Concurrent, and Concise Data Access*

#### Simon Marlow (Facebook); Louis Brandy (Facebook); Jonathan Coens (Facebook); Jon Purdy (Facebook)

Imagine you a web program, the server side code for generating a webpage, with many sources. For efficient, we need concurrency, batching, caching. We could brute force, but that destroys modularity and we its messy.

What about using explicitly concurrency ? It really on the programmer too much e.g. they forget to fork, add false dependancies.

A rule engine: input, evaluate rules and return.

Consider coding a blog, example code including Fetch monad. The concurrency is implicit in the code, just use monand and applicative.

No manual batching, again implicit in code.

Demonstrating code for map and applicative. The monadic bind gives a tree of dependencies for IO.

This was developed for the haxl project at FB, migrating from an in-house DSL called FXL to Haskell. The code framework is open-source, github.com/facebook/haxl and cabal install haxi.

Implicit parallelism is hard but data fetching doesn't suffer from this problem.

Q: Is binder linear in depth of blocked requests ?

A: Take it offline

Q: Is there accidental sequential code ?

A: We haven't rolled it out yet

*Folding Domain-Specific Languages: Deep and Shallow Embeddings (Functional Pearl)*

#### Jeremy Gibbons (University of Oxford); Nicolas Wu (University of Oxford)

Introducing a trivial toy language for examples. Defined a simple deep and shallow embedding for the toy language. Shallow embedding must be compositional. The toy language have eval and print, print is messy to add to shalow embedding.

Dependent interpretations is introduced for the deep embedding and again is ok to shallowing embedding but not great. Context senstive interpretation can again be expressed as a fold.

Deep embedding are ADT's, shallow embeddings are folds over that AS.

Q: Has you method for shallow embedding sacrificed extensibility ?

A: Yes but we can work around it

Q: What about binders, what about recursion ? You example is too simple.

A: Not sure

#### Session 14: Abstract Machines (Chair: David Van Horn)

*Krivine Nets*

#### Olle Fredriksson (University of Birmingham); Dan Ghica (University of Birmingham)

We're good at writing machine-independent good. But how about architecture independence? (CPU, FPGA, distributed system).

Work: underlying exeution mechanism for suporting node annotations t @ A.

Approach: put your conventional abstract machines in the cloud.

Krivine net = instantiation of a network model with Distributed Krivine machine. Network model: synchronous message passing and asynchronous message passing.

Basic idea of execution: remote stack extension.

Krivine nets perform much better than previous approaches (GOI and GAMC).

Future: work on runtime system -- failure detection and recovery, may need GC.

Implementation and formalization: bitbucket.org/ollef

Q: How about more complex data like arrays which are expensive to send over the network?

A: We're working on this -- introduce a notion of mobile and immobile.

*Distilling Abstract Machines*

#### Beniamino Accattoli (University of Bologna); Pablo Barenbaum (University of Buenos Aires); Damiano Mazza (Université Paris 13)

Setting: lambda-calculus. There has been a lot of research into the relationship between abstract machines and substitution. We introduce the Linear Substitution Calculus which decomposes beta-reduction. It is equipped with a notion of structural equivalence.

Origins: proof nets: a graphical language for linear logic. Multiplicative cut (symmetric monoidal closed category), exponential cut (for every A, !A is a commutative comonoid)

Introduce Linear Substitution Calculus -- proof nets in disguise. Have multiplicative and exponential step.

Then define reduction strategies on it: by name / by value (LR / RL) / by need require a specific form of evaluation context together with specific versions of the multiplicative and the exponential step.

Distilleries: choice of deterministic multiplicative and exponential evaluation rule and an equivalence relation which is a strong bisimulation; an abstract machine with transitions defined by the chosen rules; a decoding function. Moral: the LSC is exactly the abstract machnie "forgetting" the commutative transitions. In all cases, distillation preserves complexity.

Q: What does the fourth possible combination of multiplicative and exponential evaluation correspond to (both by value)?

A: That would be a sort of call-by-value, depending on how you define the context.

Q: Can you bring some order to the seemingly unrelated evaluation contexts?

A: With these contexts, you tell the machine where to look for the next redex. You can even do non-deterministic machines. At some point, your choice is limited if you want execution to be deterministic.

Q: Are these evaluation contexts maximally liberal while staying deterministic?

A: Yes.

Q: From reduction semantics to an abstract machine is a mechanical process. Is it possible to find an algorithm that generates distilleries?

A: I can do it by hand ... don't know if there is an algorithm.

#### Student Research Competition Award Presentation

14 submissions; 13 accepted (7 grad, 6 undergrad); 3 winners for each category.

#### ICFP 2015 Advert & Closing

ICFP 2015 will take place in Vancouver, Canada: icfpconference.org/icfp2015

The venue is great -- connectivity, location etc.

New: will have a Mentoring Workshop for beginning graduate students doing research. Workshop proposals and paper submission deadlines are on the website.

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